3 Tips For Surviving Commercial Driver Shortage

The shortage of commercial drivers is no longer a news. In 2015, there was a report of over 30 000 empty seats which needed to be filled in the United States and the problem has kept escalating since then. It so surprising that there is a shortage of commercial drivers when commercial driving schools, as well as trucking companies, have been pumping out newly trained drivers. Statistics have shown a good number of certified commercial drivers who are unemployed but they aren’t lining up to fill the empty seats in trucking companies. As a trucking company, the following tips can enable you to survive the shortage of commercial drivers.Tip 1 – Creating Opportunity for Growth in your CompanyWorking for a company and remaining in the same position for several years can be discouraging. One of the ways to reduce the turnover of drivers and attract new ones is by providing growth opportunities. Based on the performance of the driver, they can be promoted to other roles such as team captains and supervisors. However, the criteria for promoting the drivers should be made known to every driver on the field in other to prevent those who went promoted from getting frustrated and upset. Also, a company where there are growth opportunities are quite attractive to the younger generation of drivers. Better equipped trucks, automatic transmissions, and improved sleeping cabins are few of the other ways to attract young drivers who seek more comfort and convenience.


Tip 2 – Offering Better Compensations and Performance-Based Incentives. Offering better compensations to drivers is not an added expense but a means of reducing cost. It reduces your cost of recruiting and training because you get to attract more experienced drivers while reducing the turnover of your existing drivers. Also, drivers who do their job well, arrive on time, drive safely, and are efficient and productive should be given bonuses. This keeps them motivated.Tip 3 – Making the Job EasyThere are new technologies such as the route optimization software which helps in planning accurate and well-optimized routes. This ensures that drivers never get stuck on the road. It assists them in increasing their productivity and timeliness thus making the job easy and seamless. Also, the software comes with a tracking device which enables the company to know the location of their drivers in real time. This enables the company to be able to send assistance to the driver in case of any problem or breakdown of the vehicle while on the road.


The shortage of commercial drivers does not only increase the cost of operating a company but it also decreases the revenue of the company. Irrespective of what you choose to do in other to mitigate the impact of commercial driver shortage on your company, the best tip is to start as soon as you can. If you have any question concerning how your truck company can survive the shortage in commercial drivers, you can always call or contact a Truck Driver Company.

Impacts of Information Technology on Society in the New Century

In the past few decades there has been a revolution in computing and communications, and all indications are that technological progress and use of information technology will continue at a rapid pace. Accompanying and supporting the dramatic increases in the power and use of new information technologies has been the declining cost of communications as a result of both technological improvements and increased competition. According to Moore’s law the processing power of microchips is doubling every 18 months. These advances present many significant opportunities but also pose major challenges. Today, innovations in information technology are having wide-ranging effects across numerous domains of society, and policy makers are acting on issues involving economic productivity, intellectual property rights, privacy protection, and affordability of and access to information. Choices made now will have long lasting consequences, and attention must be paid to their social and economic impacts.

One of the most significant outcomes of the progress of information technology is probably electronic commerce over the Internet, a new way of conducting business. Though only a few years old, it may radically alter economic activities and the social environment. Already, it affects such large sectors as communications, finance and retail trade and might expand to areas such as education and health services. It implies the seamless application of information and communication technology along the entire value chain of a business that is conducted electronically.

The impacts of information technology and electronic commerce on business models, commerce, market structure, workplace, labour market, education, private life and society as a whole.

1. Business Models, Commerce and Market Structure

One important way in which information technology is affecting work is by reducing the importance of distance. In many industries, the geographic distribution of work is changing significantly. For instance, some software firms have found that they can overcome the tight local market for software engineers by sending projects to India or other nations where the wages are much lower. Furthermore, such arrangements can take advantage of the time differences so that critical projects can be worked on nearly around the clock. Firms can outsource their manufacturing to other nations and rely on telecommunications to keep marketing, R&D, and distribution teams in close contact with the manufacturing groups. Thus the technology can enable a finer division of labour among countries, which in turn affects the relative demand for various skills in each nation. The technology enables various types of work and employment to be decoupled from one another. Firms have greater freedom to locate their economic activities, creating greater competition among regions in infrastructure, labour, capital, and other resource markets. It also opens the door for regulatory arbitrage: firms can increasingly choose which tax authority and other regulations apply.

Computers and communication technologies also promote more market-like forms of production and distribution. An infrastructure of computing and communication technology, providing 24-hour access at low cost to almost any kind of price and product information desired by buyers, will reduce the informational barriers to efficient market operation. This infrastructure might also provide the means for effecting real-time transactions and make intermediaries such as sales clerks, stock brokers and travel agents, whose function is to provide an essential information link between buyers and sellers, redundant. Removal of intermediaries would reduce the costs in the production and distribution value chain. The information technologies have facilitated the evolution of enhanced mail order retailing, in which goods can be ordered quickly by using telephones or computer networks and then dispatched by suppliers through integrated transport companies that rely extensively on computers and communication technologies to control their operations. Nonphysical goods, such as software, can be shipped electronically, eliminating the entire transport channel. Payments can be done in new ways. The result is disintermediation throughout the distribution channel, with cost reduction, lower end-consumer prices, and higher profit margins.

The impact of information technology on the firms’ cost structure can be best illustrated on the electronic commerce example. The key areas of cost reduction when carrying out a sale via electronic commerce rather than in a traditional store involve physical establishment, order placement and execution, customer support, strong, inventory carrying, and distribution. Although setting up and maintaining an e-commerce web site might be expensive, it is certainly less expensive to maintain such a storefront than a physical one because it is always open, can be accessed by millions around the globe, and has few variable costs, so that it can scale up to meet the demand. By maintaining one ‘store’ instead of several, duplicate inventory costs are eliminated. In addition, e-commerce is very effective at reducing the costs of attracting new customers, because advertising is typically cheaper than for other media and more targeted. Moreover, the electronic interface allows e-commerce merchants to check that an order is internally consistent and that the order, receipt, and invoice match. Through e-commerce, firms are able to move much of their customer support on line so that customers can access databases or manuals directly. This significantly cuts costs while generally improving the quality of service. E-commerce shops require far fewer, but high-skilled, employees. E-commerce also permits savings in inventory carrying costs. The faster the input can be ordered and delivered, the less the need for a large inventory. The impact on costs associated with decreased inventories is most pronounced in industries where the product has a limited shelf life (e.g. bananas), is subject to fast technological obsolescence or price declines (e.g. computers), or where there is a rapid flow of new products (e.g. books, music). Although shipping costs can increase the cost of many products purchased via electronic commerce and add substantially to the final price, distribution costs are significantly reduced for digital products such as financial services, software, and travel, which are important e-commerce segments.

Although electronic commerce causes the disintermediation of some intermediaries, it creates greater dependency on others and also some entirely new intermediary functions. Among the intermediary services that could add costs to e-commerce transactions are advertising, secure online payment, and delivery. The relative ease of becoming an e-commerce merchant and setting up stores results in such a huge number of offerings that consumers can easily be overwhelmed. This increases the importance of using advertising to establish a brand name and thus generate consumer familiarity and trust. For new e-commerce start-ups, this process can be expensive and represents a significant transaction cost. The openness, global reach, and lack of physical clues that are inherent characteristics of e-commerce also make it vulnerable to fraud and thus increase certain costs for e-commerce merchants as compared to traditional stores. New techniques are being developed to protect the use of credit cards in e-commerce transactions, but the need for greater security and user verification leads to increased costs. A key feature of e-commerce is the convenience of having purchases delivered directly. In the case of tangibles, such as books, this incurs delivery costs, which cause prices to rise in most cases, thereby negating many of the savings associated with e-commerce and substantially adding to transaction costs.

With the Internet, e-commerce is rapidly expanding into a fast-moving, open global market with an ever-increasing number of participants. The open and global nature of e-commerce is likely to increase market size and change market structure, both in terms of the number and size of players and the way in which players compete on international markets. Digitized products can cross the border in real time, consumers can shop 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and firms are increasingly faced with international online competition. The Internet is helping to enlarge existing markets by cutting through many of the distribution and marketing barriers that can prevent firms from gaining access to foreign markets. E-commerce lowers information and transaction costs for operating on overseas markets and provides a cheap and efficient way to strengthen customer-supplier relations. It also encourages companies to develop innovative ways of advertising, delivering and supporting their product and services. While e-commerce on the Internet offers the potential for global markets, certain factors, such as language, transport costs, local reputation, as well as differences in the cost and ease of access to networks, attenuate this potential to a greater or lesser extent.

2. Workplace and Labour Market

Computers and communication technologies allow individuals to communicate with one another in ways complementary to traditional face-to-face, telephonic, and written modes. They enable collaborative work involving distributed communities of actors who seldom, if ever, meet physically. These technologies utilize communication infrastructures that are both global and always up, thus enabling 24-hour activity and asynchronous as well as synchronous interactions among individuals, groups, and organizations. Social interaction in organizations will be affected by use of computers and communication technologies. Peer-to-peer relations across department lines will be enhanced through sharing of information and coordination of activities. Interaction between superiors and subordinates will become more tense because of social control issues raised by the use of computerized monitoring systems, but on the other hand, the use of e-mail will lower the barriers to communications across different status levels, resulting in more uninhibited communications between supervisor and subordinates.

That the importance of distance will be reduced by computers and communication technology also favours telecommuting, and thus, has implications for the residence patterns of the citizens. As workers find that they can do most of their work at home rather than in a centralized workplace, the demand for homes in climatically and physically attractive regions would increase. The consequences of such a shift in employment from the suburbs to more remote areas would be profound. Property values would rise in the favoured destinations and fall in the suburbs. Rural, historical, or charming aspects of life and the environment in the newly attractive areas would be threatened. Since most telecommuters would be among the better educated and higher paid, the demand in these areas for high-income and high-status services like gourmet restaurants and clothing boutiques would increase. Also would there be an expansion of services of all types, creating and expanding job opportunities for the local population.

By reducing the fixed cost of employment, widespread telecommuting should make it easier for individuals to work on flexible schedules, to work part time, to share jobs, or to hold two or more jobs simultaneously. Since changing employers would not necessarily require changing one’s place of residence, telecommuting should increase job mobility and speed career advancement. This increased flexibility might also reduce job stress and increase job satisfaction. Since job stress is a major factor governing health there may be additional benefits in the form of reduced health costs and mortality rates. On the other hand one might also argue that technologies, by expanding the number of different tasks that are expected of workers and the array of skills needed to perform these tasks, might speed up work and increase the level of stress and time pressure on workers.

A question that is more difficult to be answered is about the impacts that computers and communications might have on employment. The ability of computers and communications to perform routine tasks such as bookkeeping more rapidly than humans leads to concern that people will be replaced by computers and communications. The response to this argument is that even if computers and communications lead to the elimination of some workers, other jobs will be created, particularly for computer professionals, and that growth in output will increase overall employment. It is more likely that computers and communications will lead to changes in the types of workers needed for different occupations rather than to changes in total employment.

A number of industries are affected by electronic commerce. The distribution sector is directly affected, as e-commerce is a way of supplying and delivering goods and services. Other industries, indirectly affected, are those related to information and communication technology (the infrastructure that enables e-commerce), content-related industries (entertainment, software), transactions-related industries (financial sector, advertising, travel, transport). eCommerce might also create new markets or extend market reach beyond traditional borders. Enlarging the market will have a positive effect on jobs. Another important issue relates to inter linkages among activities affected by e-commerce. Expenditure for e-commerce-related intermediate goods and services will create jobs indirectly, on the basis of the volume of electronic transactions and their effect on prices, costs and productivity. The convergence of media, telecommunication and computing technologies is creating a new integrated supply chain for the production and delivery of multimedia and information content. Most of the employment related to e-commerce around the content industries and communication infrastructure such as the Internet.

Jobs are both created and destroyed by technology, trade, and organizational change. These processes also underlie changes in the skill composition of employment. Beyond the net employment gains or losses brought about by these factors, it is apparent that workers with different skill levels will be affected differently. E-commerce is certainly driving the demand for IT professionals but it also requires IT expertise to be coupled with strong business application skills, thereby generating demand for a flexible, multi-skilled work force. There is a growing need for increased integration of Internet front-end applications with enterprise operations, applications and back-end databases. Many of the IT skill requirements needed for Internet support can be met by low-paid IT workers who can deal with the organizational services needed for basic web page programming. However, wide area networks, competitive web sites, and complex network applications require much more skill than a platform-specific IT job. Since the skills required for e-commerce are rare and in high demand, e-commerce might accelerate the up skilling trend in many countries by requiring high-skilled computer scientists to replace low-skilled information clerks, cashiers and market salespersons.

3. Education

Advances in information technology will affect the craft of teaching by complementing rather than eliminating traditional classroom instruction. Indeed the effective instructor acts in a mixture of roles. In one role the instructor is a supplier of services to the students, who might be regarded as its customers. But the effective instructor occupies another role as well, as a supervisor of students, and plays a role in motivating, encouraging, evaluating, and developing students. For any topic there will always be a small percentage of students with the necessary background, motivation, and self-discipline to learn from self-paced workbooks or computer assisted instruction. For the majority of students, however, the presence of a live instructor will continue to be far more effective than a computer assisted counterpart in facilitating positive educational outcomes. The greatest potential for new information technology lies in improving the productivity of time spent outside the classroom. Making solutions to problem sets and assigned reading materials available on the Internet offers a lot of convenience. E-mail vastly simplifies communication between students and faculty and among students who may be engaged in group projects. Advances in information technology will affect the craft of teaching by complementing rather than eliminating traditional classroom instruction. Indeed the effective instructor acts in a mixture of roles. In one role the instructor is a supplier of services to the students, who might be regarded as its customers. But the effective instructor occupies another role as well, as a supervisor of students, and plays a role in motivating, encouraging, evaluating, and developing students. For any topic there will always be a small percentage of students with the necessary background, motivation, and self-discipline to learn from self-paced workbooks or computer assisted instruction. For the majority of students, however, the presence of a live instructor will continue to be far more effective than a computer assisted counterpart in facilitating positive educational outcomes. The greatest potential for new information technology lies in improving the productivity of time spent outside the classroom. Making solutions to problem sets and assigned reading materials available on the Internet offers a lot of convenience. E-mail vastly simplifies communication between students and faculty and among students who may be engaged in group projects.

Although distance learning has existed for some time, the Internet makes possible a large expansion in coverage and better delivery of instruction. Text can be combined with audio/ video, and students can interact in real time via e-mail and discussion groups. Such technical improvements coincide with a general demand for retraining by those who, due to work and family demands, cannot attend traditional courses. Distance learning via the Internet is likely to complement existing schools for children and university students, but it could have more of a substitution effect for continuing education programmes. For some degree programmes, high-prestige institutions could use their reputation to attract students who would otherwise attend a local facility. Owing to the Internet’s ease of access and convenience for distance learning, overall demand for such programmes will probably expand, leading to growth in this segment of e-commerce.

As shown in the previous section, high level skills are vital in a technology-based and knowledge intensive economy. Changes associated with rapid technological advances in industry have made continual upgrading of professional skills an economic necessity. The goal of lifelong learning can only be accomplished by reinforcing and adapting existing systems of learning, both in public and private sectors. The demand for education and training concerns the full range of modern technology. Information technologies are uniquely capable of providing ways to meet this demand. Online training via the Internet ranges from accessing self-study courses to complete electronic classrooms. These computer-based training programmes provide flexibility in skills acquisition and are more affordable and relevant than more traditional seminars and courses.

4. Private Life and Society

Increasing representation of a wide variety of content in digital form results in easier and cheaper duplication and distribution of information. This has a mixed effect on the provision of content. On the one hand, content can be distributed at a lower unit cost. On the other hand, distribution of content outside of channels that respect intellectual property rights can reduce the incentives of creators and distributors to produce and make content available in the first place. Information technology raises a host of questions about intellectual property protection and new tools and regulations have to be developed in order to solve this problem.

Many issues also surround free speech and regulation of content on the Internet, and there continue to be calls for mechanisms to control objectionable content. However it is very difficult to find a sensible solution. Dealing with indecent material involves understanding not only the views on such topics but also their evolution over time. Furthermore, the same technology that allows for content altering with respect to decency can be used to filter political speech and to restrict access to political material. Thus, if censorship does not appear to be an option, a possible solution might be labelling. The idea is that consumers will be better informed in their decisions to avoid objectionable content.

The rapid increase in computing and communications power has raised considerable concern about privacy both in the public and private sector. Decreases in the cost of data storage and information processing make it likely that it will become practicable for both government and private data-mining enterprises to collect detailed dossiers on all citizens. Nobody knows who currently collects data about individuals, how this data is used and shared or how this data might be misused. These concerns lower the consumers’ trust in online institutions and communication and, thus, inhibit the development of electronic commerce. A technological approach to protecting privacy might by cryptography although it might be claimed that cryptography presents a serious barrier to criminal investigations.

It is popular wisdom that people today suffer information overload. A lot of the information available on the Internet is incomplete and even incorrect. People spend more and more of their time absorbing irrelevant information just because it is available and they think they should know about it. Therefore, it must be studied how people assign credibility to the information they collect in order to invent and develop new credibility systems to help consumers to manage the information overload.

Technological progress inevitably creates dependence on technology. Indeed the creation of vital infrastructure ensures dependence on that infrastructure. As surely as the world is now dependent on its transport, telephone, and other infrastructures, it will be dependent on the emerging information infrastructure. Dependence on technology can bring risks. Failures in the technological infrastructure can cause the collapse of economic and social functionality. Blackouts of long-distance telephone service, credit data systems, and electronic funds transfer systems, and other such vital communications and information processing services would undoubtedly cause widespread economic disruption. However, it is probably impossible to avoid technological dependence. Therefore, what must be considered is the exposure brought from dependence on technologies with a recognizable probability of failure, no workable substitute at hand, and high costs as a result of failure.

The ongoing computing and communications revolution has numerous economic and social impacts on modern society and requires serious social science investigation in order to manage its risks and dangers. Such work would be valuable for both social policy and technology design. Decisions have to be taken carefully. Many choices being made now will be costly or difficult to modify in the future.

National Economic Reforms Science And Technology Directives

In the last half of the 20th century it was President Kennedy who took up the gauntlet of outlining a national directive focusing on science and technology. The course that the United States chartered then propelled America into the space age. No longer was man confined to this planet alone. We reached for the stars and did the impossible. We put a man on the moon, built the International Space Station, launched the Hubble Telescope which opened up the universe for all of mankind, and sent the Voyager on a never ending quest to “boldly go where no man has gone before.”

This all came about because a sitting President had the courage and took the leadership to lay the groundwork for the United States to act on a decisive plan of direction which open up so many windows of opportunity for millions of Americans. Some how for the past five decades the United States lost the exuberance that prevailed when President Kennedy pointed this country in a new direction.

Sure, there have been many marvels along the way in technology, science, and medicine. The Internet for one has opened up a whole new world filled with opportunities never before imagined. Heart transplants are now almost a routine procedure. So many more wonders have come into existence since the early 1960′s but, the leadership to identify and implement a national plan of direction that would put the United States onto the path toward that brighter future hasn’t happened since we put a man on the moon. It is within National Economic Reform where there is a direct plan of direction for the United States. Article Six is probably the most ambitious directive there is. But, this component is vital for the future of America and really the rest of the world. Implementing National Economic Reform is crucial for the future of not only the United States but for all of mankind especially when the Science and Technology Directives are realized.

The United States must recognize and take decisive action on five fronts now outlined in Article Six of National Economic Reform. One of the most important issues is the extent of Global Warming has on humanity and economies all over the world. This first directive is probably one of the more contentious and ambiguous issues today. We have to accept the facts as they present themselves.

First of all mankind has relied on the fuel of the first and second industrial revolution for far too ling. Today’s technology has afforded the United States to dispense with any and all types of fossil fuel while at the same time ushering in alternative lower cost green energy to supply the energy needs of this nation. There is no excuse other than Greed to keep the American public held hostage by the major fossil fuel conglomerates. Energy independence is realistic now using affordable alternative energy. The Third Industrial Revolution is now beginning and it is under the directive of Science and Technology in National Economic Reform that the energy of the tomorrow will emerge. We must remember that when the first Industrialized Revolution unfolded the fuel that ushered in a new found way of life was all based on fossil fuels. What followed was a feeding frenzy of drilling and mining which only created and environmental catastrophe that is unfolding today. Yet, in the United States our governmental officials for the most part are in a state of continued denial that our industrial infrastructure, that by the way was built and continues to use fossil fuel, is the cause of all the environmental impact that global warming is having all around the globe.

All of civilization is at a critical juncture today. We have developed more technologies in the shortest amount of time than in any other period in history. The sad fact today is that there are multitudes not only in the United States but all over the world that are left with-out the benefits that these technologies could bring. More and more people are facing dire living conditions here and over seas. Over one billion people are literally starving to death. The threat of Global Pandemics is as real as it gets. We have and are continuing to develop better technologies to eradicate hunger and the threat of a Pandemic today. But, the resolve to use the technologies that we have and develop more for the betterment of all of mankind is predicated by the implementation of National Economic Reform’s Science and Technology Directive.

The scientific community all support that drastic changes in the earths delicate condition will cause events of biblical proportions if man continues the use and consumption of fossil fuel. The world today faces mass extinctions of marine life caused by mans destructive nature in pollution of our oceans. It is imperative that the United States change direction, the continued misguided ideologies and attitudes that have prevailed for far too long if this nation is ever going to rise out of the ashes of our economic crisis. Within the Science and Technology Directive like a Phoenix rising to lead the world in alternative energy. It reminds one of that opening to the Six Million Dollar Man,” We have the technology to make him better, faster, and stronger.” Well guess what people, we actually do.

To understand what has occurred in the last hundred years of the industrial revolutions that has caused a global crisis is to look at when the peak of the second industrial revolution occurred. In 1980 is when scientists first really became concerned of the effects of all the carbon being released into the atmosphere by the industrial complexes and our modes of transportation was having. It seems that all through-out history whenever their is a industrial shift using newer technologies an economic revolution also occurs. These new emerging energy sources make it possible to create more independent economic activity. This in turn gives rise to providing more avenues to expand more commercial activity as well. Accompanying all of this newer technology are communication upgrades or so called revolutions which become the foundations where mans ability to organize, manage, and control the newer more stable set of spatial dynamics. All from evolving energy technologies.

By 1994 a new convergence of communication and energy was now infiltrating societies. Internet technology and the reemergence of renewable energy sources were about to merge in creating a powerful new infrastructure that will fuel the Third Industrial Revolution. This third industrial revolution has already begun. And, it is about to change the world forever. Just think in the next 50 or so years hundreds of millions of people the world over will be able to produce their own green energy in their homes, in offices, and in factories. Humanity will be able to share with each other an “energy Internet,” just like we are able to now create and share information online today. The democratization of energy will bring with it a fundamental reordering of all human relationships, impacting the very way we conduct business, govern society, educate and engage in civic and cultural activities.

It is to this purpose that the Scientific and Technological Directive in National Economic Reform initiate the further development and deployment of Internet energy systems across the country. To date the United States has yet to capitalize of this emerging source of the energy that will revolutionize the whole spectrum of energy consumption the world over. Government procrastination, denial, apathy and indifference have only confounded the American populace as to why the United Stats continually lags behind other industrialized countries in developing new renewable energy systems. Just take a look; in 2006 the European Union laid the groundwork for further development of this Internet technology for energy. Green technologies have all given rise to new medium of communications and infrastructure. It is in Europe and in Japan that have taken the lead in developing and the implementation of renewable green and Internet energy. meanwhile the US is stuck with our antiquated energy policies and infrastructure that still rely of fossil fuel. This is more than enough reason to implement National Economic Reform and it’s Science and Technology directives.

The second directive has to be the focus on enough clean fresh water being made available for every American and eliminate the prospect of another drought that caused irrevocable damage to this past summers harvested crops. Again, the United States has the technology to supply fresh water to areas where there are shortages. An intercontinental aqueduct that crisscrosses the country bringing water to areas that need it most is a priority that can’t wait any longer. To those skeptics that continue to say we can’t afford to spend billions of dollars to build the infrastructure that would accommodate this monumental undertaking forget one of the biggest reasons and purpose behind National Economic Reform and that is to have the United States regain it’s financial capabilities. If we constructed the oil pipeline from Alaska we can do likewise for water, our most precious natural resource.

The third directive concerns the eventuality of natural disasters. Earthquakes, tornados, hurricanes and major power outages all are facts of life. But what the United states must do to minimize the devastation caused is to have in place better warning systems, safer and sturdier construction that will be able to withstand any contingency that arises out of a natural catastrophe, and have in place relief efforts readily available so that another Katrina like episode will never happen again.

The fourth directive is already being considered by scientists the world over. To make what President Kennedy started become more of a reality for deep space travel and realistically transport men and equipment to distant planets space travel has to be reinvented sort of speaking. This is because our known laws of physics has only kept humanity very limited in space exploration. That is until now. It is this forth directive that will have far reaching implications to say the least.

We must remember that since the dawn of mankind man has always looked up to the heavens and pondered that ageless question whether we are alone or are there other life forms some where out in the Universe. From the first time man notices those shinning stars above we have become fascinated by the reality of what is really out there. Humanity has always pondered the possibilities of other life forms that could very possibly be inhabiting other worlds. Through-out history even before Ancient Egypt the question of was mankind influenced by Alien life forms has always sparked debate. Stonehenge is one example of just maybe mankind was assisted with the building of that monument. And, there are other all over the world that to this day cannot be explained using our present knowledge and technology.

The Roswell case and Area 51 come quickly when we think of Alien visitors. What happened that night in 1947 indicates that we may have just had a visit from some alien life form. To this day there are still conflicting reports of what actually occurred in Area 51. Is there still a cover up of what happened or is it all a hoax in an attempt to create more speculation of the existence of Alien life forms? It really is difficult to comprehend considering the vastness of space and the abundance of other galaxies to think that mankind on earth are the only life forms in the entire universe.

This fourth directive has to do with the facts that man by nature is inquisitive, always searching for meaning, answers to the what if’s, the facts of life’s existence and the answers to what really is out there in the cosmos. This has stirred the never ending pursuit to find the answers. Finding those answers lies with developing the technologies that would make it feasible to actually secure the knowledge of what the Universe holds for mankind.

The United States was just beginning to develop the technology that would enable man to actually solve some of the mysteries of the Universe with the deployment of the Supercollider that was almost completed in 1993. The experiments that were to be conducted would have enabled scientists to finally realize what Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity entailed. Part of the answers remain hidden but, what we do know now that nuclear fusion and atoms accelerate to the speed of light. Roughly one hours ride to Jupiter. The whole concept behind the Supercollider project was to create and prove molecules can move as fast as atoms. We were very close in achieving molecular momentum accelerating to the speed of light and nuclear fusion. Unfortunately congress in their shortsightedness failed to renew the funding for the completion of the Supercollider project. The reality hit home because the cost to dismantle what was already constructed cost much more in tax payers money than that what was needed to finish construction. Just another way Congress still can’t get it right. Today, there has been a renewed interest from the international scientific community. A new smaller version has been completed under the Swiss and French boarder and is more than capable of finishing what the United States tried to do in 1993.

Involved in the fourth directive is proving and achieving molecular acceleration equal to that of atomic acceleration. Once we do mankind just might be able to greatly expand our knowledge of our own galaxy and others as well. Albert Einstein proved that atoms accelerated to the speed of light. It is now up to this directive and involving the rest of the worlds scientific community to figure out molecular reconstruction and reconstruction of when molecules achieve the acceleration point of atomic particles and reconstruct the same molecules as before after the acceleration has been achieved. All one has to do to visualize this is look at any Star Trek shows when they say “beam me up.” It isn’t so far from becoming a reality. Without gaining this knowledge mankind will find it next to impossible to be able to reach and explore the far reaches of our own galaxy let alone the rest of the universe.

We are close but we aren’t there yet and the prime goal of this fourth directive is to finish the job. Once we do mankind just might be able to like that saying “boldly go where no man has gone before.” It is to this end that the Science and Technology directive focus on bringing together the rest of the international community and other industrialized nations in creating an International Space Exploratory Federation using all the available aerospace contractors and encouraging more countries to provide resources so that more opportunities in developing newer technologies will enable mankind to have the availability to fulfill our ultimate destiny.

The fifth directive is in the medical field of advancing and distribution of vaccines and treatments so that any threat of a pandemic outbreak will be held in check. In the United States there is a resurgence of dreaded diseases such as TB, small pox, whooping cough and a whole assortment of other diseases that early vaccinations would practically eliminate any threat of a resurgence of the diseases that are on the rise today. All too often misguided information, lack of funding, or just plan ignorance have placed our society at risk. When the medical community is very much concerned that any outbreak of communicable diseases could at any moment spread like wild fire quick containment and vaccinations are imperative. This fifth directive goes along with National Economic Reforms, Universal Health Care.

A plan of direction for the United States is the purpose and guide of National Economic Reform. The Science and Technology Directives outlined will have a direct affect on the future of America. It is the intent of total reform from which the United States will emerge from the quandaries that have befallen this nation. In implementing National Economic Reform in it’s entirety the United States will rise like that Phoenix to lead the world into that brighter future.

How Can Instructional Technology Make Teaching and Learning More Effective in the Schools?

In the past few years of research on instructional technology has resulted in a clearer vision of how technology can affect teaching and learning. Today, almost every school in the United States of America uses technology as a part of teaching and learning and with each state having its own customized technology program. In most of those schools, teachers use the technology through integrated activities that are a part of their daily school curriculum. For instance, instructional technology creates an active environment in which students not only inquire, but also define problems of interest to them. Such an activity would integrate the subjects of technology, social studies, math, science, and language arts with the opportunity to create student-centered activity. Most educational technology experts agree, however, that technology should be integrated, not as a separate subject or as a once-in-a-while project, but as a tool to promote and extend student learning on a daily basis.

Today, classroom teachers may lack personal experience with technology and present an additional challenge. In order to incorporate technology-based activities and projects into their curriculum, those teachers first must find the time to learn to use the tools and understand the terminology necessary for participation in projects or activities. They must have the ability to employ technology to improve student learning as well as to further personal professional development.

Instructional technology empowers students by improving skills and concepts through multiple representations and enhanced visualization. Its benefits include increased accuracy and speed in data collection and graphing, real-time visualization, the ability to collect and analyze large volumes of data and collaboration of data collection and interpretation, and more varied presentation of results. Technology also engages students in higher-order thinking, builds strong problem-solving skills, and develops deep understanding of concepts and procedures when used appropriately.

Technology should play a critical role in academic content standards and their successful implementation. Expectations reflecting the appropriate use of technology should be woven into the standards, benchmarks and grade-level indicators. For example, the standards should include expectations for students to compute fluently using paper and pencil, technology-supported and mental methods and to use graphing calculators or computers to graph and analyze mathematical relationships. These expectations should be intended to support a curriculum rich in the use of technology rather than limit the use of technology to specific skills or grade levels. Technology makes subjects accessible to all students, including those with special needs. Options for assisting students to maximize their strengths and progress in a standards-based curriculum are expanded through the use of technology-based support and interventions. For example, specialized technologies enhance opportunities for students with physical challenges to develop and demonstrate mathematics concepts and skills. Technology influences how we work, how we play and how we live our lives. The influence technology in the classroom should have on math and science teachers’ efforts to provide every student with “the opportunity and resources to develop the language skills they need to pursue life’s goals and to participate fully as informed, productive members of society,” cannot be overestimated.

Technology provides teachers with the instructional technology tools they need to operate more efficiently and to be more responsive to the individual needs of their students. Selecting appropriate technology tools give teachers an opportunity to build students’ conceptual knowledge and connect their learning to problem found in the world. The technology tools such as Inspiration┬« technology, Starry Night, A WebQuest and Portaportal allow students to employ a variety of strategies such as inquiry, problem-solving, creative thinking, visual imagery, critical thinking, and hands-on activity.

Benefits of the use of these technology tools include increased accuracy and speed in data collection and graphing, real-time visualization, interactive modeling of invisible science processes and structures, the ability to collect and analyze large volumes of data, collaboration for data collection and interpretation, and more varied presentations of results.

Technology integration strategies for content instructions. Beginning in kindergarten and extending through grade 12, various technologies can be made a part of everyday teaching and learning, where, for example, the use of meter sticks, hand lenses, temperature probes and computers becomes a seamless part of what teachers and students are learning and doing. Contents teachers should use technology in ways that enable students to conduct inquiries and engage in collaborative activities. In traditional or teacher-centered approaches, computer technology is used more for drill, practice and mastery of basic skills.

The instructional strategies employed in such classrooms are teacher centered because of the way they supplement teacher-controlled activities and because the software used to provide the drill and practice is teacher selected and teacher assigned. The relevancy of technology in the lives of young learners and the capacity of technology to enhance teachers’ efficiency are helping to raise students’ achievement in new and exciting ways.

As students move through grade levels, they can engage in increasingly sophisticated hands-on, inquiry-based, personally relevant activities where they investigate, research, measure, compile and analyze information to reach conclusions, solve problems, make predictions and/or seek alternatives. They can explain how science often advances with the introduction of new technologies and how solving technological problems often results in new scientific knowledge. They should describe how new technologies often extend the current levels of scientific understanding and introduce new areas of research. They should explain why basic concepts and principles of science and technology should be a part of active debate about the economics, policies, politics and ethics of various science-related and technology-related challenges.

Students need grade-level appropriate classroom experiences, enabling them to learn and to be able to do science in an active, inquiry-based fashion where technological tools, resources, methods and processes are readily available and extensively used. As students integrate technology into learning about and doing science, emphasis should be placed on how to think through problems and projects, not just what to think.

Technological tools and resources may range from hand lenses and pendulums, to electronic balances and up-to-date online computers (with software), to methods and processes for planning and doing a project. Students can learn by observing, designing, communicating, calculating, researching, building, testing, assessing risks and benefits, and modifying structures, devices and processes – while applying their developing knowledge of science and technology.
Most students in the schools, at all age levels, might have some expertise in the use of technology, however K-12 they should recognize that science and technology are interconnected and that using technology involves assessment of the benefits, risks and costs. Students should build scientific and technological knowledge, as well as the skill required to design and construct devices. In addition, they should develop the processes to solve problems and understand that problems may be solved in several ways.

Rapid developments in the design and uses of technology, particularly in electronic tools, will change how students learn. For example, graphing calculators and computer-based tools provide powerful mechanisms for communicating, applying, and learning mathematics in the workplace, in everyday tasks, and in school mathematics. Technology, such as calculators and computers, help students learn mathematics and support effective mathematics teaching. Rather than replacing the learning of basic concepts and skills, technology can connect skills and procedures to deeper mathematical understanding. For example, geometry software allows experimentation with families of geometric objects, and graphing utilities facilitate learning about the characteristics of classes of functions.

Learning and applying mathematics requires students to become adept in using a variety of techniques and tools for computing, measuring, analyzing data and solving problems. Computers, calculators, physical models, and measuring devices are examples of the wide variety of technologies, or tools, used to teach, learn, and do mathematics. These tools complement, rather than replace, more traditional ways of doing mathematics, such as using symbols and hand-drawn diagrams.

Technology, used appropriately, helps students learn mathematics. Electronic tools, such as spreadsheets and dynamic geometry software, extend the range of problems and develop understanding of key mathematical relationships. A strong foundation in number and operation concepts and skills is required to use calculators effectively as a tool for solving problems involving computations. Appropriate uses of those and other technologies in the mathematics classroom enhance learning, support effective instruction, and impact the levels of emphasis and ways certain mathematics concepts and skills are learned. For instance, graphing calculators allow students to quickly and easily produce multiple graphs for a set of data, determine appropriate ways to display and interpret the data, and test conjectures about the impact of changes in the data.

Technology is a tool for learning and doing mathematics rather than an end in itself. As with any instructional tool or aid, it is only effective when used well. Teachers must make critical decisions about when and how to use technology to focus instruction on learning mathematics.

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